~*~ ORGANOPHOSPHATES ~*~ ~*~ CARBAMATES ~*~
PYRETHRINS & PYRETHROIDS
HUMAN EXPOSURE occurs when a person breaths
in pesticides, absorbs them through their skin, or eats
them. Dilute pesticides in common use use can be
Pesticides residues may remain present on plants, in soil,
on indoor surfaces, and in the air for days or weeks (and
in some cases, EVEN MONTHS OR YEARS after an
ACTIVE INGREDIENTS of PESTICIDES
The vast majority of common insecticides used by
homeowners, commercial applicators (exterminators,
lawn pesticide applicators, etc.), and farmers fall into
one of the THREE CLASSES -- organophosphates,
carbamates, and pyrethrins and pyrethroids.
These insect killers attack the nervous system of people
and other mammals, as well as in insects:
"An undesirable property...is the NARROW ZONE of their
TOXIC ACTION, i.e. the SMALL difference between the
LETHAL DOSE and concentrations and the quantities
giving rise to the INITIAL SIGNS of POISONING."
~*~ ORGANOPHOSPHATES ~*~
Chlorpyrifos (Durasban); Diazinon (Spectracide);
Propetamaphos (Safrotin); Acephate (Orthene); Dichlorvos
(DDVP); Parathion; Malathion and others.
Routes of entry into the body: "Poisoning was due not
only to ingestion or INHALATION of VAPOURS or DROPLETS,
but also to ABSORPTION through the INTACT SKIN."
Cholinesterase (ko-li-nes-ter-ace) is one of many important
enzymes needed for the proper functioning of the nervous systems
of humans, other vertebrates, and insects. Certain chemical classes
of pesticides, such as organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates
(CMs) work against undesirable bugs by interfering with, or
'inhibiting' cholinesterase. While the effects of cholinesterase
inhibiting products are intended for insect pests, these chemicals
can also be poisonous, or toxic, to humans.
For the Extension Toxicology Network Toxicology
Information Briefs on cholinesterase inhibition.
please click here .
***ACUTE ORGANOPHOSPHATE EXPOSURE EFFECTS***:
***FIRST STAGE OF POISONING***
The first stage is characterized by ANXIETY, NAUSEA,
SALIVATION, VOMITING, ABDOMINAL PAINS,
DIARRHEA, BLURRED VISION, and EXCESSIVE
LACRIMINAL SECRETION [tears].
***MODERATE POISONING ***
Symptoms of moderate poisoning are HEADACHE,
impairment of sensitivity (PARESTHESIA) [a sensation
of pricking, tingling, or creeping on the skin that
has no objective cause], SLEEPLESSNESS or, on the
contrary, SLEEPINESS, CONFUSION, ATAXY [inability
to coordinated voluntary muscular movements which
is symptomatic of nervous disorders or injury],
TREMORS of the hands and head, LOSS of ORIENTATION,
and SPEECH DISTURBANCES.
In cases of severe poisoning the symptoms are
those of the second and third stages: ATTACKS OF
CLONIC [a forced series of alternating contractions
and partial relaxations of a muscle] and TONIC
[prolonged muscular contraction] CONVULSIONS
which alternate with a COMATOSE STATE.
The blood pressure is initially increased, but drops shortly
before death. PULMONARY OEDEMA [an abnormal
excess accumulation of serous fluid] develops, collapse
may occur, urine and feces are involuntarily eliminated.
DEATH ENSUES WHEN RESPIRATION IS PARALYZED.
If large quantities of poison are absorbed, death
may supervene one or two hours later, but in general,
several hours elapse between the onset of poisoning
* CHRONIC AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS *
DELAYED NEUROLOGICAL EFFECTS including PAIN,
NUMBNESS and WEAKNESS in the extremities which may
persist for months or years. Also, central nervous
system damage (HEADACHE, WEAKNESS, FEELING of
HEAVINESS in the HEAD, DECLINE of MEMORY, quick
onset of FATIGUE, DISTURBED SLEEP, LOSS of APPETITE,
and LOSS of ORIENTATION.
PSYCHIC DISORDERS, nystagmus [a rapid involuntary
oscillation of eyeball], TREMBLING of the HANDS
and other NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS can be
observed in certain cases.
Sometimes NEURITIS [an inflammatory or DEGENERATIVE
LESION OF A NERVE, esp. marked by pain, sensory
disturbances and impaired or lost reflexes], PARESIS
[slight or partial paralysis] and PARALYSIS develop).
Can cause CHEMICAL SENSITIVITIES to pesticides and
cross-sensitivities to pollens, molds, prescription drugs.
Many chronic effects remain unknown as 70 percent of pesticides
have undergone fraudulent safety testing (EPA, Federal Register,
and Sierra Club).
In lab animals, exposures have caused cancer, birth defects,
and organ damage.
~*~ CARBAMATES ~*~
Bendiocarb (Ficam); Carbaryl (Sevin); Propoxur
Baygon), and others.
***ACUTE EXPOSURE EFFECTS***:
Headache; tiredness; vomiting; sweating; blurred
vision; stomach pain; dizziness; seizures; shortness
of breath; SAME SYMPTOMS AS ACUTE EFFECTS OF
* CHRONIC EFFECTS *
Some carbamates may cause GENETIC MUTATIONS,
BIRTH DEFECTS, and reduced fertility in men and women
[reduced sperm count, feminization of males, disruption
of menstrual flow, infertility].
May also damage the KIDNEYS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM,
with effects including spasms, weight-loss, fatigue,
and flu-like symptoms, etc..
~*~ PYRETHRINS & PYRETHROIDS ~*~
Allenthrin; Cypermethrin (Demon); Cyfluthrin (Tempo);
Fenvalerate; Resmethrin; Pyrethrins or Pyrethrum and others.
[Note: Some pyrethrin products also contain organophosphate
or carbamate insecticides. Many pyrethrin products contain
piperynol butoxide (PBO), a possible carcinogen.]
***ACUTE EXPOSURE EFFECTS***:
Lack of coordination; convulsions; muscle paralysis;
pallor; rapid heart rate; irritability; numbness or
tingling in the extremities; unusually runny nose;
ringing, clicking, or pulsation in the ears; blurred
vision, headaches; tremors; vomiting; burning and
itching sensation; asthma.
Can induce extreme allergic (anaphylactic) reaction;
pneumonia; death due to respiratory failure.
* CHRONIC EFFECTS *:
Severe allergy including lung allergy with asthmatic
effects and "hypersensitivity pneumonitis;" and skin
rash and itching even with slight exposure.
--Primary Source: World Health Report
from The Encyclopedia of Occupational
Health and Safety (third revision)
--Supplemental pesticide information provided
by New York Coalition for Alternatives to
Pesticides ("Health Effects of Insecticides")
ADDITIONAL RELATED INFORMATION AND RESOURCES
1. Chemical Injury Information Network (CIIN)
Cynthia Wilson and the recently-deceased Cindy Duehring
Co-authors of: The Human Consequences of the Chemical Problem.
PO Box 301
White Sulphur Springs, MT 59645
Email (for details): http://ciin.org/email.htm
The Chemical Injury
Information Network (CIIN) is a tax-exempt,
non-profit, charitable support and advocacy organization run by
the chemically injured for the benefit of the chemically injured.
CIIN Website: http://ciin.org/index.htm
TIMES, a monthly publication of CIIN,
a non-profit organization (available for a small donation).
Reviews of research papers are serialized in
Our Toxic Times,
the sister publication of MEDICAL & LEGAL BRIEFS:
A Reference Compendium of Chemical Injury, a bi-monthly
publication of the EARN network.
Toxic Times Website: http://ciin.org/newsletter.htm
~*~CIIN Library of Legal and Information Packs~*~
The Chemical Injury Information Network (CIIN) is building a
library of Legal Information Packages (Packs) - legal documents
and federal government recognition documents to aid chemically
injured people and those with chemical sensitivities in their legal
efforts for recognition, accommodation, and fair compensation.
The extensive list of topics cover:
*Objective Evidence of Chemical Injury Pack;
*Pesticide Secret "Inert" Ingredients Pack;
*Pesticide and Regulation: The Myth of Safety;
*Pesticides in the Workplace: Employees at Risk;
*Studies on Individual Pesticides;
*EPA Actions Against Organophosphates and Other Pesticides;
*School and Workplace Accommodations for Chemically Injured;
*Federal, State, and Local Recognition of Chemical Injury;
*Social Security Disability and Workman's Compensation;
*American with Disabilities Act;
*US Fair Housing Act and HUD;
*Perfume, Formaldehyde, and Cigarette Smoke Toxicity;
*Neurotoxicity and Neurogenic Inflammation;
*Time-Dependent Sensitization, QEEGs, and Brain Scans;
*RADS, Asthma, and Respiratory Disorders;
*Toxic Responses of the Heart and Cardiovascular System;
*Immunotoxicity of Pesticides
*NRC Report Addresses Chemically-Induced Autoimmune Disease
*The Porphyrias and Heme Pathways;
*Porphyrinogenic Pesticides: Toxic to All Living Things
*P450 Enzyme System;
*Pesticides, Genetic Mutation, Damage, and Birth Defects
*Carcinogenic (Cancer) Effects of Pesticides
*Corporate Influence on Exposure Standards for Toxic Substances,
and *Integrated and Non-Toxic Pest and Weed Management
CIIN Library Website:
~*~The Cindy Duehring Memorial Site~*~
~*~The Cindy Duehring Chemical Injury Research Fund~*~
2. Beyond Pesticides/
National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides (NCAMP)
701 E Street, S.E., Suite 200
Washington, DC 20003
(Superior collection of education and media resources)
NCAMP Website: http://www.beyondpesticides.org
*For Beyond Pesticide/ NCAMP PRESS
(OCTOBER 13, 1999) introducing the
School Environment Protection Act (SEPA))
to protect children from hazardous pesticides
used in and around schools, please click here.
*For the statement by Jay Feldman, Executive Director,
Beyond Pesticides/National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides
at Press Conference on the School Environment Protection Act (SEPA)
at the U.S. Senate on October 13, 1999. Click here.
3. Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides (NCAP)
PO Box 1393
Eugene, OR 97440
Phone (541) 344-5044;
Fax (541) 344-6923
(Provides excellent publications and much
information on pesticide use in schools).
4. Get Set, Inc. --
Non-Toxic Pest Control
2530 Hayes Street
Marne, MI 49435-9752
This website is produced by Steve Tvedten, a former pesticide
applicator who sets the standard for the elimination of pesticides
from homes, schools and businesses.
From the site: Rachel Carson said it best in Silent Spring:
"If having endured much, we at
last asserted our 'right to know'
and if, knowing, we have concluded that we are being asked
to take senseless and frightening risks, then we should no longer
accept the counsel of those who tell us that we must fill our world
with poisonous chemicals, we should look around and see what
other course is open to us"
Accordingly, you will find no poisonous
chemicals on this
website [Get Set, Inc.] as we do not use (volatile, synthetic)
pesticides, we use only Pestisafes. While pesticides need
to be registered because they contain many dangerous, poisonous
chemicals, our Pestisafes and alternative controls use or
contain only (naturally occurring) materials that are (GRAS)
Generally Recognized as Safe, and therefore are not registered.
5. BIRC (Bio-Integral Resource Center)
PO Box 7414
Berkeley, CA 94707
THE IPM PRACTITIONER and
SENSE PEST CONTROL QUARTERLY, publications
of BIRC, a non-profit institution providing education
and research on integrated pest control.
(Least-toxic pesticide management publications
6. MCS Referral & Resources
508 Westgate Rd, Baltimore MD 21229
Professional outreach, patient support, and public advocacy
devoted to the diagnosis, treatment, accommodation, and
prevention of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Disorders.
*New 1999 Consensus Definition of MCS
*Biomarkers of MCS
*Diagnostic Codes for MCS
*Who We Are and What We Do
*MCS R&R's Advocacy Initiatives
*MCS R&R's Bibliograpy of Scientific Articles
*MCS R&R's Fact Sheets
*MCS R&R's Press Releases
*MCS R&R's Referral Service
*MCS R&R's Resources for Patients, Doctors & Attorneys
*Literature, Products, Books & Videos
*MCS in Art and Culture
*Draft Report of Federal Interagency Workgroup on MCS
*Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide
*The Tell-Tale Face of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
7. New York Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides
353 Hamilton Street
Albany, New York 12210-1709
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